The Doughnut Model

We believe Kate Raworth’s Doughnut Model is the framework so direly missing from economics education. The economic playing field has never been drawn so clearly. Therefore, we believe the future of economics education lies in rewriting economics curricula all over the world to reflect the framework of the doughnut and the concepts following from it. Click on any bullet to find out more ...

The Doughnut Model
Ecological cycles Economic Scarcity Exchange over Time Inequality Economic Performance Rational Economic Men Financial Casino Economic Goals Alternative allocation Externalities Throughput Systems Thinking Embedded Economy Demonitize Economics Globalization (Un)commons Economic Choice

Ecological cycles

Do economists need a basic understanding of humans' interference in ecological cycles?

Economic Scarcity

What is the meaning of economic scarcity within the framework of the doughnut model?

Exchange over Time

When we borrow or save money, we exchange over time. We either pull our expenses forward or we push them backward. How can we apply the concept of exchange over time to other perspectives?


In most textbooks the focus is on income inequality. Is income inequality at the root of inequalities in society?

Economic Performance

When we kick economic growth from its pedestal as the main economic performance indicator, which alternatives can we use?

Rational Economic Men

There is no such thing as Homo Economicus, but how can we make students more economically literate?

Financial Casino

Many financial products have no link with the real economy. How can we make students think about the added value of these products?

Economic Goals

Economic growth is the most common economic goal, but is it SMART?

Alternative allocation

The amount of attention paid to the market system in economic textbooks suggests that the invisible hand is the only allocation system. What about a visible hand?


Are so-called externalities really external and how can we internalize them?


The business column is often used to explain different types of concentration in markets. Can we use it to follow a product from resources to waste?

Systems Thinking

We teach students economic reasoning which is a linear approach. How can we apply systems thinking to economics to give students a real world perspective?

Embedded Economy

What changes in how we cover the economic cycle, when we take its interactions with the ecosystem into account?

Demonitize Economics

When you ask people what Economics is about, many will answer that it is about money. How can we put the role of money in the economy in perspective?


Globalization is often presented as the recipe for economic development. Does one size fits all?


How can we let students form a well balanced opinion on the pros and cons of private and public ownership?

Economic Choice

Economic policy often seems straightforward. How do we make students aware of the political element of economic choice?